Saturday, January 30, 2016

Susunan Tata Surya

Sebelumnya di sekitar matahari terdapat 9 (sembilan) planet naun karena ukuran sangat kecil dan melanggar orbit, maka salah satu planet tereliminasi sehingga hanya menjad 8 (delapan) planet. Ke delapan planet tersebut yaitu merkurius, venus, bumi, mars, yupiter yang merupakan planet raksasa, saturnus, dan uranus serta planet neptunus. Berikut akan dipaparkan mengenai susunan tata surya.
1. Matahari  
Pusat tata surya kita adalah matahari. Ukurannya sangat besar berdiameter kurang lebih 1.392.500 km. Tersusun dari gas hidrogen sebanyak 70%, gas helium sebesar 25% dan 5% dari gas lainnya. Jarak antara matahari dan bumi kurang dari 150 juta km. Suhu luar matahari sekitar 60.000 celcius. Matahari terdiri dari beberapa bagian yaitu fotosfer, kromosfer, prominensa dan korona serta bintik matahari.
2. Planet
Gerakan planet mengelilingi matahari disebut dengan revolusi. Seperti yang telah diketahui bahwa terdapat delapan planet yang menglilingi matahari, sebagai berikut.
·         Merkurius, merupakan planet yang terdekat dengan Matahari. Di permukaanya terdapat kawah terbesar yang disebut dengan kolaris. Merkurius juga disebut dengan bintang pagi atau bintang malam dengan waktu edarnya 88 hari, jarak  dengan matahari sekitar 58 juta km. Planet ini tidak memiliki satelit alami dan merupakan planet terkecil dengan massa 0,055 dari massa bumi.

·         Venus, adalah planet ini hampir seukuran dengan bumi bermassa 0,815 dari massa bumi. Seperti halnya bumi, venus juga mempunyai selimut kulit silikat yang tebal dan berinti besi. Namun venus lebih kering dari pada bumi dan atmosfernya juga lebih padat dari pada bumi. Venus juga tidak mempunyai satelit. Dengan suhu permukaan mencapai 400 C Venus disebut sebagai planet terpanas, yang disebabkan dari jumlah gas rumah kaca yang terkandung dalam atmosfer.

Ecosystem balance

Forest ecosystems including natural ecosystems. Natural ecosystems are ecosystems formed by itself without human intervention. The natural balance of the ecosystem can be disturbed due to human activities. Humans are causing the greatest disruption to the ecosystem. What is an ecosystem? Ecosystem is the interplay (reciprocal) between the living and the environment. Ecosystem formed by the components of living things (biotic) and creatures not living (abiotic). Biotic component consists of humans, animals and plants. Biotic components can be divided into three (3) categories, namely:

Biotic components
Abiotic components are all factors making up the ecosystem composed of inanimate objects, among other things: sunlight, temperature, oxygen, water, and soil, and so on. Sunlight is the energy source of all existing organisms.

In an ecosystem there are units of living things, including:
Individual, ie the smallest unit of living things or also known as a single unit of living things.
Population, which is a kind of living groups and occupy certain areas.
Community, which is a set of populations that inhabit a particular region.
Ecosystem, namely the interrelationships between the living and the environment.
Biome, which is a collection of ecosystems within a given territory. Example: desert, grassland, savanna and Steva.
Biosphere, namely all the ecosystems that exist on the surface of the earth.
In ecosystems there must be interaction or reciprocal relationship between the components with each other. The interaction can be mutually beneficial interactions, adverse or no effect on each other. The types of interaction are:
Symbiosis, divided into three types: mutualism, parasitism, and komensalisme.
Forms of Symbiosis
Ecosystems are said to be balanced is when all the components of both biotic and abiotic portion should be on both the number and role in the environment. In ecosystems events eating meals that we refer to as the food chain. Ideally in a food chain of the amount of each of its members must comply with the rules of the ecosystem. In an ecosystem there must be a balance between producers and consumers. Life can still take place if the number of producers is greater than I. Consumers consumer level I level more than the consumer level II and beyond.

Ecosystem imbalance occurs when all the biotic and abiotic components are not on the portion that should both the number and role in the environment. So it can be said to be unbalanced if one of the components in the ecosystem is damaged. For example, the rat population in the fields continue to be hunted by little because the farmers would result in snake populations declining due to run out of food in the form of a rat.

Causes Disruption of Ecosystems Balance

In addition to natural factors, circumstances that greatly affects the balance of the ecosystem is the presence and activities of humans. With sense and mind, people will easily transform an environment. The result is damage and unbalance the ecosystem. There are two important factors that cause tergangunya ecosystems. Namely: (1) natural factors and (2) the human factor.
Natural Factors' factor that occurs due to natural disasters. For example: floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and others. If an environmental disaster will usually be contained one faulty component causing the environment becomes unbalanced.
Human Factors' factor that occurs caused by human hands. Human activity can lead to disturbance of the balance of the ecosystem. Here are some of the human activities that affect the balance of the ecosystem.
The following human activities that can disrupt ecosystems

1. Illegal Logging and Burning Tree in the Forest

Household appliances made of wood. This type of wood is widely used to meet human needs, such as meranti, camphor, teak, and mahogany. The types of wood taken from the forest. The existence of illegal logging can cause damage to a living plant and animal habitats. As a result, many species of plants are to be reduced and eventually become scarce. This happens because making continuous but not done replanting. Plants that have become extinct due to habitat destruction for example teak trees, orchids and flower Rafflesia.

Forests have a very important role for the ecosystem. In the woods live different kinds of animals and plants. Forests provide food, shelter, and protection for these animals. If the trees are cut down constantly, a food source for animals that live in the tree will also be reduced, or no, because it's a lot of animal food shortages. As a result, many animals were destroyed and become scarce. In addition to cutting down trees, humans sometimes open farmland and housing by burning the forest. As a result, a layer of soil can be burned, the soil becomes dry and infertile. Land animals can not live, many large animals foraging elsewhere even to human settlements. It can also damage the balance of the ecosystem.

2. Hunting Animals in Continuous
Many human activities that damage the ecosystem balance eg sea fishing with poisons or explosives. This can lead to the destruction of coral reefs. Coral reefs are living a small fish that are bigger fish food. Penangkan kapalkapal fish by trawling can cause a decrease in the number of fish in the sea. Because the small fish trawlers will also netted.

Arrest illegal in some animals, such as turtles, birds of paradise, rhinos, and tigers could cause these animals became scarce. No humans were hunting animals just for fun. Also there who use as a food ingredient, decoration or clothing.

3. Excessive use of fertilizers
The farmers usually do some ways to crops remains good and plenty. Ways that made by the farmers were among the fertilization and pest control. Fertilizer which farmers use are of two kinds, namely natural fertilizers and fertilizers

Natural fertilizer is a fertilizer made from natural materials, for example, from animal waste or leaves that have rotted. Natural fertilizer known as manure or compost. Artificial fertilizer is fertilizer made from chemicals. Examples of artificial fertilizers are urea, NPK, and ZA. The use of artificial fertilizers should conform to the rules of usage as it may affect the ecosystem. Excessive fertilizers if some rain will dissolve and the water washed into rivers or lakes. As a result, in these places there is accumulation of nutrients so that weeds thrive.

To combat the pest, farmers use pesticides or insecticides. Examples of the use of insecticides that damage the ecosystem is not timely usage, excessive in number and type of insecticide is not appropriate. The use of insecticides and pesticides must be in accordance with the provisions that do not kill other creatures, such as birds or other animals that do not damage the plants.

4. Waste Disposal and Waste
Most human activities conducted inevitably results in garbage or waste. Ranging from household waste, agriculture, transport, to industrial waste. The plastic used for packaging are examples of household waste. Pesticides if used excessively can be agricultural waste. Smoke is a waste transportation vehicles. As examples of industrial waste such as waste water and smoke. The existing waste and waste are easily broken down and some are difficult to untangle. If the waste is not done correctly, what happens is environmental damage.

5. Environmental Polluting Activities
Pollute the environment means adding contaminants (pollutants) in the environment so that the environment becomes polluted. There are several kinds of pollution, namely:
Pollution of soil, 'That is the entry of pollutants in the form of a liquid or solid material that goes into the ground that can not be broken down by microorganisms, such as plastics, cans, glass, causing oxygen can not seep into the ground. Other factors, namely the use of pesticides and detergents are seeping into the soil can affect the ground water, flora, and fauna of the soil.
Water pollution, ie the entry of pollutants in the form of a liquid or solid material that goes into the water.
Air pollution, ie the inclusion of air pollutants such as fumes, dust, and soot.
Sound pollution noise pollution caused by the noise of motor vehicles, airplanes, factories roar of the engine, radio or tape recorder that reads loud that it interferes with hearing.
6. Building
Construction of the road passing through the forest can harm the environment. Trees into shelter and animal food sources cut down so that the animal is endangered. This activity is very disturbing the environmental balance. The areas around the hills can be affected by disasters, such as floods and landslides.

7. Mining Activities

Oil drilling and mining of mineral openly would cause environmental damage. Open oil drilling and mining can reduce the natural resources and polluting the surrounding area. As a result of these activities is quite difficult to overcome and cause an area becomes unproductive.

8. Use of Motor Vehicle

The fuel needed to run a motor vehicle. The fuel can be either petrol and diesel. Fuel combustion cause air pollution. These include burning gas produces carbon dioxide to grow. This resulted in the earth is getting hotter. These conditions resulted in some kind of living creature difficulty adapting. Some are dead, and the balance of the ecosystem becomes disrupted.

Imbalances Impact Against Human Beings

Changes in the environment can occur by human activities or natural events such as volcanic eruptions, landslides, and wildfires. Environmental changes that occur, whether by human or natural events can be positive, that is beneficial to human well-being and negative harmful to human life.

Tree felling (Illegal logging or logging (English: illegal logging) is logging, transportation and sale of illegal wood or do not have permission from local authorities) in the woods without calculations would lead to a result of interlocking between biotic and abiotic factors. Deforestation is to eliminate most of the manufacturers in an ecosystem. Because it will lead to the extinction of most of the flora and fauna in the forest. When rain falls on the open ground, then the water will go directly into the soil has a high fertility. In the absence of trees that hold rainwater to seep into the ground will cause the flow of water on the soil surface becomes large. The existence of a large and fast flow will erode the surface of the soil is fertile.

Unbalanced ecosystem will bring adverse effects on living beings in it. The impact was certainly very harmful. Here are some impacts due to disturbance of the balance of the ecosystem for living things, including:

The extinction of a species or population, if elephants are hunted for ivory continues, not only will lead to diminishing elephant population but can cause elephant species will disappear from the face of the earth.
Damage or disaster, the most dominant feeling the effects of the disaster is human. Humans will always feel worried and afraid when the earth experienced a continual disaster. Disasters are very detrimental to human. Humans can lose everything due to the disaster. Loss of property, place of residence and even loss of life.
The emergence of anomalies (strangeness) ecosystem, peculiarities often appear as a result of an unbalanced ecosystem.

Sunday, December 20, 2015

Understanding Student Papers Various Juvenile Delinquency and How to Cope

Delinquency problems Students - Definition, Various Types and How to Overcome It
1. Teens - Students and problem
Some people argue that the youth most of the time the most beautiful and delicious. Full of excitement. It is not wrong, but it is said to be entirely correct is not possible, depending on the problem in terms of looking at him. If viewed from volition without associated with the future, he freely revelers, extravagance without having to squeeze kringat how to find rupiah for rupiah to meet their daily needs he wooing and given the reasons, if not ditiruti he would go from house (run away).
Papers Delinquency - But if looked at from the point with regard to the future of adolescence itself full responsibility jwab will bear. Then adolescence can be called the most severe period, full of challenges, it must work harder, utilizing every time dimuliki, he must pay attention aqliyah spiritual mental, physical to physical regeneration process which definitely him. Physical body, nutritious foods, intellectual appreciate science and mental spiritual nourishment that contains the norm values are timeless and sublime, physically trained with appreciation and experience of religion until the last exercise can inspire the whole attitude and behavior.
We know that children are born in a state of fitroh with potential tangible possibilities he is clever, well budinya, steadfast mentality and instead are influenced his neighborhood where he lives. Tri Education Center that school, family and society, each mempunyi role in shaping the character. Schools with all the trimmings along with the condition that there is little influence. Society with its culture and climate that exist and also where children live and continually nurtured so difficult to choose which is most dominant in influencing the behavior of children.
Background Delinquency by a series of factors which bind to each other. Family, harmony parents and role models is crucial, but in a series of tackling juvenile delinquency demanding Tri Education Center as a whole because of consciousness Tri Education Center in the process of maturing children is a key element in shaping children's personalities.
Understanding teens called "puberty" whose name comes from the Latin meaning "age become" a period in which children are prepared to become individuals who can carry out tasks such as resume biological offspring or breeding (Mappiare, 1982: 27).
According Mappiare Gunarso in his book entitled "Adolescent Psychology" says that adolescence is a period between 12-22 years as adolescence 1. and this period is closely concerned directly with the growth and development of biological and psychological. In this transition period arise difficulties in the child both physically and spiritually. The association will be the case the child will feel the stiffness in itself, this time desebut as well as feeling very sensitive; adolescents experiencing hurricanes and typhoons in the life and feelings and emotions.
2. Factors Contributing to Delinquency - Students
As for the causes of juvenile delinquency can be divided into two reasons, namely because of internal and external causes. Causes such as hereditary defects. Negative traits are difficult to control, fulfillment of basic needs that are not balanced, the length of self control, lack of adaptation to the environment that either do not have a passion-indulgence healthy.
As a first step dug and searched background student misbehavior that stem from the students themselves, factors that encourage the students, in a row according to the urgency, in the view with a number of education leaders in dasrnya sourced at:
a) an environmental household,
b) bad friends,
c) The economic conditions,
d) Problem spare time,
e) other external factors,
f) Lack of other personalities,
g) The factors of health,
h) The singing and lewd stories,
i) The narrowness of the classroom,
j) Less interested in one of the subjects,
k) The lack of suggestions for individual maintenance of schools,
l) Not effective methods applied,
m) not fulfilled practice-prratek social conditions,
n) Lack of climates conducive to the tendency of students.
3. Forms of Juvenile Delinquency - Students
In this study used the term "juvenile delinquency" which is where the term juvenile showed developmental age boy or girl above categories of children and under adult as defined above.
Despite adolescence was no strict age limit, which is indicated but the authors chose the age limit crime, drinking, smoking in public places before the appropriate age limit, and so on.
4. Efforts to Tackle Religious Education in Juvenile Students - Teens
After discussing the problems of teenagers and problem causes and forms of juvenile delinquency, it is clear that any form has negative consequences for society, the family and for himself. If left alone will lead to future generations will be bleak. Therefore, it is essential to the prevention of juvenile delinquency.
The effort is as follows:
Previntif action that any measures aimed at preventing juvenile delinquency.
Ie repressive measures to suppress and restrain the actions of juvenile delinquency more accurate.
Curative and rehabilitation of the repair inflicted particularly mischievous individual who committed the act (Singgih: 161).
On the basis of the understanding of the preventive measures, the scope of activities there are two, namely:
a. Are common effort comprising:
1) Businesses recognize or know the common traits and characteristics of a special teen.
2) Knowing the difficulties that are generally experienced by adolescents.
3) Attempts coaching adolescents, by the way
Strengthen the mental attitude of adolescents to be able to resolve the problems faced
Provide education not only in the expansion of knowledge and skills, but personal mental education through the teaching of religion
Providing the means and create an atmosphere that is optimal for the sake of personal growth reasonable
Enterprises improve the environment around the state, the family and community social environment where there is a lot of delinquency (Singih, 1983: 162).
b. Efforts that are special
Efforts prevention of juvenile delinquency in particular carried out by the educators on youth behavior disorders. Mental education at home of course, is the responsibility of the tuandan other family members. Also other educational facilities which take an important role in the formation of a reasonable personal with healthy and strong mentally for example by the student council.
Religious education efforts can be divided into:
a. Prenatal Education
Namely education done when the child is still in the womb of his mother, which is currently pregnant women should get guidance towards perfection governance and healthy life according to their religion. Prenatal education can be divided into two kinds:
1) scientific Scara:
The way of life of pregnant women should be regularly
Mothers should eat foods that are healthy and nutritious
The mother must take care of his body, clothing, home / environmental hygiene.
2) By Religion:
With so many worship God and a lot of reading the Koran
Always good morals and commendable and always do good deeds.
b. Postnatal Education
Namely education conducted after the child was born, in this case an important role is family style, because the family is the smallest unit that provide a primary foundation for the child's development while the method used for religious education in the family, among others:
Get children to live in an atmosphere of religious
An example in which the concrete acts
Always provide leadership and guidance to children
Fostering a close relationship with the child
Instill discipline
Utilizing leisure time well
The family as the smallest unit in society is formed based on the love between the two subjects, namely spouses, based on this principle was born the son as the successor of struggle. It is as revealed by a team of lecturers FKIP IKIP Malang (1980: 14) in his book "Introduction to the Fundamentals of Education" as follows: "The motivation pengabdiaon parents (family) is solely for the love of the natural. In an atmosphere of love and romance This is the process of lifelong education of children in family responsibilities ".
c. Education in schools
School is coaching that has been laid with the basics in a family environment education schools accept responsibility java based family trust
At school under asuha teachers, educators, child education and teaching. Children learn a variety of knowledge and skills in science serve as a preparation for later life in society.
At each level of the institutional school of course there was a leadership school, where school leaders dala prrogram guidance there are some responsibilities, such menganai way to understand the behavior of students, school leaders mengorgannisi board guidance program implementation guidance in schools would be a good result by forming a council bimbinmgan which is under the supervision of the school principal.
The board of guidance chosen with certain conditions are as follows:
He should know / have knowledge and understanding of developmental psychology, mental hygiene, test and measurement
He must have respect, sympathy and understanding for the child as an individual
He must have a balanced personality and should be one that dihormatri by friends teacher
He must have an inside edge in recording student needs and problems of students
He should be someone who is happy and semnagat (jumhur and Solar 1975: 124).
d. Environment Society
Meikul TURT community and educational responsibilities. In simple terms the public can be defined as a collection of individuals and groups are bound by the unity of the country, kebuadayaan and religion. Every society has ideals regulations and specific power system.
Large public influence in giving direction to the education of children, especially community leaders or rulers in it. Muslim community leaders of course requires that all students become member of a devout and obedient practice religion, both in the family environment, sepermainannya members, groups and school classes. If the child has a big well is expected to become members as well as villagers, townspeople and citizens.
Thus, life lay participation on their shoulders to guide the growth and development of children. This means that the leaders and rulers of society take responsibility for education. Because responsibility for education is essentially a moral responsibility for every adult either as individuals or as a social group. This responsibility in terms of Islam, implicitly contains also the responsibility of education (zakiah et al, 2000: 44).
The repressive measures is a legal action that is both educational meniolong teenager, action is taken if it is proven if the teen actually committing an offense, who directly helped.
The action against violations, the law of social norms and morals can be done by holding penalties for each violation. At home juvenile must abide by the regulations and ordinances that apply. In addition, there should be a penalty order made by parents against violations of the family rules, as well as in schools, the principals in charge of carrying out the punishment to discipline in schools.
Papers Juvenile Delinquency
Generally, these repressive measures in the form of a warning diberikn orally and in writing to the parents or perform special supervision by principals and teams of teachers or permanently from the school in an orderly manner tat violations that have been outlined.

Factors Affecting Student Achievement

Factors Affecting Student Achievement
In the discussion section, the author tried to describe the factors that can affect student achievement. The factors that the authors mean is as follows:

a. Internal factors
Internal factors are factors that come within the individuals themselves. The internal factors consist of:
1) Bodily Factor
Physical factors are among the factors that may affect the achievement of learning which factors are related to physical or condition of the student body. Therefore, when the condition dependent student body will affect learning outcomes. By him, the physical must be kept in tip top condition.
2) Psychological Factors
Eksteren factor is one of the internal factors that can affect student achievement, these psychological factors with regard to the psychological condition of the students.
External factor is a factor that comes from outside individuals who can influence learning achievement.

Slameto (1987), suggests that there are three parts to external factors, which can affect learning achievement in the family, school and community.
Achievement of learning achieved by someone the student is the result of the interaction of various factors that originate from within the students as well as the factors that come from outside the student. One of the factors of the student is learning interest.

Interests can encourage someone students to learn well. Students who have a high interest in learning which will generate high academic achievement as well. Where students demonstrate their sense of fun and willing to learn through without any influence from anyone. Because they do it based on the pure and sincere intentions.

From the above it can be concluded that a person interested in learning can be seen in the activities of learning, a sense of fun, it can be seen from the frequency of learning.
Interest relationship with student achievement can be described as follows:
Factors Affecting Student Achievement

Students who are interested in the subject will feel happy and attentive in learning, he would voluntarily active in participating in the learning process. Students are thus of course will master the subject matter so well that academic achievement will increase as well.

Friday, December 11, 2015

Definition of Development Communication, Papers, Articles, Theory, Background

Definition of Development Communication, Definition, Papers, Articles, Theory, Background - Development Communication - In the science of communication has developed a specialization of the application of theory and concepts specifically for the purposes of communication development program, known as Development Communication.

Communication development includes studies, analysis, promotion, and evaluation of communication technologies for all sectors of development.

In a narrow sense, development communication is any and all means, as well as delivery technique ideas, and skills development that come from a party that initiated the development and addressed to the public, with the aim that people understand, accept, and participate in implementing gagasan- ideas presented. Meanwhile, in the broadest sense, communication pembangunann include the role and functions of communication (as an activity of the exchange of messages on a reciprocal basis) among all parties involved in business development, especially among the public and the government, since the process of planning, implementation, and assessment of development (Nasution, 1996: 92).

Pragmatically, Quebral (in Nasution, 1996: 128) formulates that "Communication is the development of communications made to carry out the development plan of a country". He explained also that development communication is one of the breakthrough (break-through) in the social sciences, and is an innovation that should be sought in order to known and accepted before it is used.

Furthermore Gomez (in Nasution, 1996: 128) formulating development communication as follows:

Communication is the development and practical disciplines of communication in the context of developing countries, especially the activities of communication for social change plans. Development communication is intended to consciously improve human development, and that means of communication that would eliminate poverty, unemployment, injustice.

Another discussion about the theoretical concept of development communication have also been raised by some other experts through some of their studies, which are:

1. Study Daniel Lerner
Lerner is seen as the first to perform the study investigated the relationship of communication to development. Work was published under the title The Passing of Traditional Society in 1957. Lerner conducted a study in six countries in the Middle East region, such as Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iran. Lerner core of the study was to analyze the relationship between the level of urbanization with the level of literacy, with the use of mass media and community participation in political activities. According to the modernization of a nation begins to urbanization, and urbanization will increase literacy, and meningakatkan use of media, which further increase the political participation of society. As a benchmark when a country reaches the urbanization rate of 10%, the literacy rate will equally increase even up to 25% and thus the highest correlation of media consumption is the literacy rate.
He explained also that the communication system is an indication and an agent of social change processes. Changes in public communication system always runs in one direction, namely from oral communication system (mouth to mouth) to medium (which uses the media). Oral communication system suitable for traditional communities while the media communication system suitable modern society.

2. Study Mc. Clelland
Mc Clelland study entitled The Achieving Society, which is about the psychological boost that motivates a community to achieve progress. From the results of these studies Mc Clelland obtain several conclusions, which are:
To promote a society must begin by changing the mental attitude (attitude) members.
Community building and have developed driven by the need to achieve something or need for achievement (n / Ach) through various channels of communication that exist in society.
Economic development is influenced by confidence, future oriented, berkopentensi, like risk, and others.

3. Study Wilbur Schramm
Schramm studies focused on the position of the mass media as a communication related to the role of development. In a report titled Mass Media and National Development: The Role of Information in Developing Countries in 1964, which essentially suggests that mass media can help in terms of:
Disseminate information about development, namely the need for a description of the development to all corners masyarat, due principally to change the lives of the whole society.
Teach literacy and other skills, namely to methods or activities that are more modern than the ways in advance and be able to do it yourself.
The public had the opportunity to take part in decision-making in the country, the people need dimotivai to change his destiny and achieve a better life.
From this argument shows that for people who want to progress requires extensive knowledge as a starting point to encourage and develop the desire to change life in the direction of progress. Public attention needs to be focused on the construction of which is expected creations, aspirations and community involvement can be utilized in a more beneficial.

4. Study Inkeles and Smith
The second study entitled Becoming Modern experts: Individual Change in Six Developing Countries in 1962 and 1964, which focused on the individual level. The findings of their study is the expression of that modern human traits are:
Open to new experiences, it means always eager to look for or find something new.
Increasingly dependent (independent) to various forms of traditional powers such as tribes, kings, and so forth.
Confidence in the knowledge and ability to conquer nature.
Oriented mobility and higher living ambition and desire to pursue a career ladder and achievement.
Having a long-term plan and are always up to something far ahead and think about what will be achieved.
An active role in politics, which is marked by the merger of the various organizations, both familial and wider as well as participate in the activities of the local community in which it resides.
Conclusions Inkeles and Smith is also related to economic growth, namely that permodernan institutions such as the media and the school has created a modern man who can fill the role of a career in a variety of modern institutions necessary for economic growth. Although education is the variable that is closest correlation with modernity at the individual level, meaning that the same is true of the mass media.

5. Study Rogers and Shoemaker
Rogers and Shoemaker argued Diffusion of Innovation Theory. This theory examines the messages in the form of ideas or new ideas, which lead to social change.

Diffusion of innovation as a social phenomenon takes place in line with social change, and social change also motivate people to discover and disseminate new things.

The presence of innovations into the middle of a social system is mainly due to the communication between members of a community or between a community with other communities. Through the channels komunikasilah happen recognition, understanding, judgment, which was to generate acceptance or rejection of an innovation.

Communities that receive an innovation does not occur simultaneously. There were already waiting for her, because it is aware of the needs and there were only received after completely believe the benefits of innovation are even survive or reject the innovation in question.

According to Roger and Shoemaker (in Nasution, 1996: 112), people who accept innovation are grouped into several categories, as follows:
Innovators, those who are already basically enjoys new things, and diligently carry out experiments.
Recipients of early (early adopters), that is, people of influence, where friends around him to obtain information, and the people who are more advanced than those around him.
The majority of early (early majority), that people accept an innovation one step ahead of the average for most other people.
The majority of recent (late majority), the new people who are willing to accept an innovation if everyone around him according to his judgment has received.
Leggards, namely the most recent layer receives an innovation.

Dikemukannya also that in accepting the innovation, usually a person will go through a number of stages, as follows:
Knowledge stage. The stage when someone consciously, knowing that there is something innovative.
Bujukan.Tahap stage when someone is considering or are forming attitudes to innovation that have been known before, whether he liked it or not.
Decision stage. The stage when a person makes a decision whether to accept or reject the innovation in question.
Implementation Phase. The stage when a person carries out the decisions that have been made about anything innovation.
Stage assurance. The stage when someone ascertain or confirm the decision that has been taken.

An innovation usually consists of two components, namely the idea of components and component objects (the material aspect or a physical product from earlier ideas). Every innovation has a component of the idea, but many do not have a physical reference. Acceptance of an innovation which has these two components requires the adoption of the form of action (action), whereas for the innovations that only has component ideas, in essence acceptance rather a symbolic decision.

b. Role of Communication in Development
Public perception has been that the communication is not so important in the development process. This is because the theories of development proposed economic thinkers are generally only developed in the tradition of the theory of economic growth, which contains a description of the process of economic change that has taken place in developed countries. The starting point of these theories have always started from the empowerment of the main factors of production, namely land, capital, and labor. In other words, very rarely explicitly included discussion about communication. In some cases the discussion of communication in developing just placed as "lip service" but these statements and then move on to the theory of economic growth only, as if that explanation is complete and sufficient even ironically communication looks precisely placed as an extension of the description of "transport ".

In fact, according to Frey (in Nasution, 1996: 81) "if observed carefully, actually many phases of economic growth according to the theories of the development which is where communication plays an important role".

Frey gave the example of the price system (pricing system) can be seen as a system of communication that is specialized, which provides essential information for rational calculation of reference for planning and economic decision-makers at all levels.

Frey suggested that the discussion of development need to be linked with a more in-depth analysis on the effect of communication that have relevance to the development. Dikemukan frey (in Nasution, 1996: 83) "that while the cost of modernization may be so great, but to a certain extent can be resolved through communication system".

Berkatian with the level of analysis, Hedebro (in Nasution, 1996: 79) identifies three aspects of communication and development, namely:
1. The approach focuses on the development of a nation, and how the media can contribute to these efforts.
Here, politics and mass media functions in a general sense is the object of study, as well as issues concerning the organizational structure and ownership, as well as control over the media. For studies of this type, now used the term communication policy, and an approach that is the most broad and general (common).

2. The approach is also intended to understand the role of mass media in national development, but much more specific.
The media is seen as an educator or teacher, the idea is how the mass media can be used to teach people various skills, and under certain conditions affecting the mental attitude and their behavior. The main issue in the study of this kind is, how the mass media can be used in the most efficient way to teach certain knowledge for the people of a nation.

3.-oriented approach to changes that occur on a local community or village.
Her concentration is on introducing new ideas, products and new ways, and the spread in a country or region. HOW deepen the study of this type of communication activity can be used to promote widespread acceptance of ideas and new products.

Further Hedebro argued twelve (12) to do the role of communication in development, as follows:
Communication can create a climate for change to persuade on behalf of the values, mental attitudes, and behaviors that support modernization.
Communication can be taught new skills, ranging from literacy to the farm, to the environmental success, to repair the car.
The mass media can act as multipliers of knowledge resources.
The mass media can deliver experiences that as the experience itself, thus reducing the cost of psychological and economical way to create a mobile personality.
Communication can increase the aspirations of a real incentive to act.
Communication can help people find new norms and harmony in life.
Communication can make people more inclined to participate in decision-making at the center of social life.
Communication can change the structure of power in society which is characterized by traditional, bringing knowledge to the masses. Those who obtain the information would be meaningful and traditional leaders will be challenged by the fact that there are others who also have advantages in terms of having the communication.
Communication can create a sense of nationality as something to overcome local loyalties.
Communication can help the majority of the population to realize the importance of them as citizens, so as to help improve the political activity.
Communication can facilitate the planning and implementation of development programs relating to the need penduduk.Komunikasi can create economic development, social, and political becomes an ongoing process itself (self-perpectuating).

In relation to the national development of a nation, Schramm (in Nasution, 1996: 85) formulated the basic tasks of communication as follows:
Convey to the public, information on national development, so that they focus on the need for change, the opportunity and the means to make changes, means change, and raise national aspirations.
Allowing the public to take an active part in the decision-making process, expanding the dialogue to involve all those who will make decisions about changes, provides an opportunity for community leaders to lead and listen to the opinion of the common people, and creating a flow of information that goes smoothly from the bottom to the top.
Educating the necessary manpower development, since adults, to children, since learning to read and write, to the technical skills to change people's lives.
Definition of Development Communication

Analysis of the most original and provocative are comments Mc Clelland linking communications with economic development, which is about the importance of public opinion to development. According to Mc Clelland (in Nasution, 1996: 84) that:

In the economic development of society is the strength that summarizes move from institutionalized tradition, to public opinion, which can accommodate changes, and specific interpersonal relationships as well as functional.

From that sense it can be argued that the rigid ways and has been given in dealing with others, to be replaced with patterns more flexible to suit specific needs. Society became more open and effective, because individuals as members of the public can communicate with others for specific purposes. Things like this make people participate with confidence because of the relationship or komuniasi is controlled by the opinions and expectations of "others".

Economic Development in Indonesia

Economic Development in Indonesia - In international reports many found the concept of "economic growth". The concept is in the Indonesian language can be interpreted as the result of economic growth as the economic development. Economic development means growth of production capacity in the economy of a country as a whole. Mathematically this definition implies a movement out of the production possibilities curve in the economy.

According to Meier and Baldwin (in Safril, 2003: 142) that "Economic development is a process, with the process of real national income grow an economy over a long period of time".

The same thing also expressed by Djojohadikusomo (1991) that "Economic development is an attempt to increase the per capita income and raise productivity per capita by way of adding capital equipment and increase skill".

When further analyzed obtained some general conclusions about economic development, as follows:

Economic development is aimed at structural changes that are qualitative.

Economic development does not just produce more output, but also there is a change in institutions and production techniques as well as skill in generating output.

Economic development include changes in the structure of output as a result of the allocation of inputs in the economy.

From some of these definitions can be concluded that economic development is an activity that is directed toward a better economic life for the people of a nation.

a. Indonesian Economic Development

Economic development of Indonesia implemented covers all aspects of the economy, society, community life both rural and urban communities, with the primary objective mempebaiki and improve the lives of all people in Indonesia. Economic development is carried out by focusing efforts on the growth sectors of the economy to take advantage of all its potential, both natural resources and human resources.

In order for the implementation of economic development can touch all aspects of the community's economy and equity outcomes, the government issued several policy directions of economic development.

b. Policy direction of Indonesian Economic Development

Centralized development and unevenly implemented during this apparently only prioritize economic growth and does not offset the social, democratic politics, which has caused the monetary and economic crisis, which almost continues with an alarming moral crisis. It later became the cause of national crisis (90s), which endanger the unity and integrity as well as threaten the survival of the nation. Therefore, reforms in all fields must be done to get back up and reinforce the confidence and ability to perform the steps penyelelamatan, recovery, stabilization, and development of a new paradigm of economic development with sound democratic Indonesia.

Actualization of the reform to the issuance of economic development policies contained in the Outlines of the State Policy of 1999-2004 (MPR Decree No. IV / MPR / 1999).

Economic Development

In Outlines of State Policy 1999-2004 set the direction of development in the field of economic policy, including:

Develop a democratic economic system based on market mechanism.

Developing a healthy and fair competition.

Optimizing the role of governments to regulate public services, subsidies and incentives, which is done in a transparent manner.

Develop a decent life, especially for the poor and abandoned children.

Developing a globally oriented economy in accordance with technological advances to make the most of leading sectors of each region.

Managing macro and micro economic policies are coordinated and synergistic.

Develop fiscal policy.

Developing a healthy capital market, transparency and efficiency.

Optimize the use of foreign loans for productive economic activities.

Develop industrial policy, trade, and investment.

Empowering small and medium enterprises, and cooperatives to be more efficient and productive.

Reforming State-Owned Enterprises in an efficient, transparent, and professional.

Develop partnerships in the form of business relations and mutual support and benefit between cooperatives and the State Owned Enterprises.

Developing a food security system based on the diversity of food resources, institutions, and local culture.

Improve the provision and utilization of energy resources and electricity is relatively cheap.

Developing a land policy to improve the utilization and use of land in a transparent and productive.

Enhance the development and maintenance of public facilities and infrastructure, including transportation, telecommunications, energy, electricity, and clean water.

Develop a comprehensive and integrated employment.

Increasing the quantity and quality of employment abroad with regard to competence, protection, and defense of labor.

Improve the control, development and utilization of science and technology, especially the national technology.

Perform various concerted efforts to accelerate the process of poverty alleviation and unemployment.

Speed up rescue and economic recovery in order to improve the real sector, especially for small and medium enterprises, and cooperatives.

Nourish the State Budget (APBN) by reducing the state deficit through increased budget discipline, reducing subsidies, and foreign loans gradually.

Accelerate the recapitalization of the banking sector and the restructuring of private debt.

Implement the restructuring of state assets, especially assets that come from the banking and corporate liquidation.

Conducting negotiations and accelerate the restructuring of foreign debt together with the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, other financial institutions and donor countries.

Proactively conduct negotiations and economic cooperation, bilateral and multilateral in order to increase the volume and value of exports.

Healthful State Owned / Regional Owned Enterprises whose business is mainly related to the public interest.

Some of Indonesia's economic development policy directions above show that economic development is a series of efforts for sustainable economic development of the sector in order to improve the living standards of the Indonesian people to get out of the economic downturn.